Data from Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (BPPT) shows that Indonesia's electricity consumption is 798kWh / capita. It is still far behind Thailand (2,471kWh / capita), Malaysia (4.512kWh / capita), Singapore (8,840kWh / capita), and Brunei Darussalam (9704 kWh / capita). The biggest challenge in the deployment of electricity infrastructure in Indonesia is its geography . Indonesia consists of 17,504 islands which make it hard to distribute the electricity, and is well documentedthat, as electricity is centralized on Java, many isolated island lack access to electricity.
The Center for the Development of a Sustainable Region (CDSR) is USAID SHERA collaborative research center (CCR) focusing on energy, the environment, and maritime research and plans to address this challenge through its research on energy-efficient buildings and micro-algae as a source for renewable energy It is led by Universitas Gadjah Mada, with partnership members including Universitas Indonesia, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Universitas Bangka Belitung, and University Colorado, Boulder.
Microalgae developed by CDSR is the source of biodiesel. Half of this microalgae mass can be converted into biofuel. And the rest? CDSR turns it into a variety of diversified products that can be used for daily household, such as soaps and supplements. Beside microalgae, CDSR also develops the technology, called Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV), to build energy-efficient green buildings that require minimal energy inputs almost do not require energy. As a part of their work with SHERA, CDSR will construct energy-efficient buildings in Yogyakarta, Bandung, and Bogor on Java, and the Bangka Belitung island off the coast of Sumatra.